China under Deng Xiaoping's leadership

When Deng Xiaoping pre-eminent leader of China was in December 1978, China was still in the chaos of the Cultural Revolution. The per capita annual income was less than US $ 100.

By the time he joined in 1992 down, hundreds of millions of Chinese citizens out of poverty had been freed, and China was rapidly becoming stronger, richer and more modern.

Deng Xiaoping origin not reform and opening up - the after the death of Mao Zedong began under the direction of Hua Guofeng in 1976. But Deng provided the steady hand that to be a clear direction and the political fate of China successfully. He had the support of leading cadres, who realized that Mao continued revolutions disaster brought, but he had the judgment to exceed the reforms and helping keep those who feared the opening of the markets, as well as those that the opening feared would be too slow.

Few people were better prepared for the leadership of a country has as Deng when he was the outstanding leader at 74. He is responsible for local government in Jiangxi Province, the Ruijin County had been in the early 1930s, for the area in the Taihang mountains of Shanshi in the late 1930s and early 1940s and after the Second world war in the border regions of Hebei, Henan, Shandong and Shanshi. From 1949-1952 he was responsible for the entire Southwest, with over 100 million people. He had been twelve years a Military Commander (political commissar). In the Huai Hai Campaign, where half a million communist troops fought an even greater number of Nationalist troops, he ended up in charge of all the Communist forces as Front Party secretary. He was to be monitored by 1956-1966 General Secretary of the party was all important matters of the party. He had the acting head of the foreign policy, carry on discussions with high-ranking foreign visitors in 1974 and 1975. He was finance minister from 1953 to 1954. He had been cured by rinsed three times. In 1975 he prepared for future modernization programs by improving relations with Chinese scientists supervised, and in 1977 he had opened again and universities entrance exams after ten years of absence on. Perhaps more important than all of these tasks in preparing him was his experience in close cooperation with Zhou Enlai and Mao Tse-tung for about five decades as they thought about the overall strategy for the revolution, internal political and economic development, and relations with other countries.

In preparation for the modernization Deng developed closer relations with the leading modern countries. He paved the way for closer ties with Europe during his visit to France in 1975. It has taken the political decisions that paved the way for the treaty of peace and friendship with Japan in 1978, and then went to Japan in October this year in a triumphal visit that gained the support of the Japanese government and industry. He led the introduction of Japanese films, literature and television series in China, helping Chinese to overcome their negative feelings to Japan and learn from Japanese scientists, engineers and industry leaders. He oversaw the negotiations on the normalization of relations with the United States to the final phase, in which he personally conducted the negotiations. This was where he founded in January 1979 by his trip to the United States, good relations with President Carter, with congressional leaders and business leaders.

When Deng came to power in 1978, he feared the increasingly aggressive Soviet Union and Vietnam would take advantage of the US withdrawal. He decided he had to attack Vietnam, to show the seriousness of China's determination to resist and make the cost of the two countries significantly when they progress in Asia to try to proceed were. But once Deng made his point and the Soviet Union held its progress through Southeast Asia, he tried to appease the relationship with the Soviet Union, so that he could keep military costs down and focus on peaceful economic development.

Deng gradually opened markets in the country and in the cities. He continued, government planning and state enterprises but more open markets when he felt the political situation allows. But immediately after the outstanding leaders always he threw wide open the doors for foreign study.

Deng believed that the chaos in the century before the Communists in 1949 took power and the chaos of the decade of the Cultural Revolution had made economic growth to naught, and he was determined to keep the country stable, even if the use of force required to put down protests. He believed that how much a country is moving towards democracy depended on how stable was the political situation. He took a few steps to grant more freedoms than had Mao, but disrupted as public demonstrations with the movement of people in the center of Beijing, he sent unarmed troops in. If this order failed to bring, he said, to do his troops what necessary was to keep the peace. Several hundred people were killed June 4, 1989 its efforts to maintain stability. Deng then entered from formal positions down; But in 1992, when he believed that his successor in too cautious were the promotion of growth and market opening, he took a trip to the south, successfully light a fire, to ensure that China continues to grow strongly and that the role of markets further to expand.
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